Industry info
Industry info

Chemical fiber fabric is a new clothing material developed in modern times

2022-01-06 17:40 VIEW:285

Chemical fiber refers to the fiber made from natural or artificial high molecular material.First, chemical fiber can be divided into regenerative fiber and synthetic fiber according to the different sources of raw materials.

Chemical fiber refers to the fiber made from natural or artificial high molecular material.

First, chemical fiber can be divided into regenerative fiber and synthetic fiber according to the different sources of raw materials.

(1) Recycled fiber

The production of regenerated fiber is inspired by silkworm silk spinning, using natural polymer compounds such as cellulose and protein as raw materials, through chemical processing into polymer concentrated solution, and then by spinning and post-treatment of the textile fiber.

Regenerated fiber mesh fabric

Regenerated fiber mesh fabric

1. Regenerated cellulose fiber with natural cellulose as raw material of regenerated fiber, because its chemical composition and natural cellulose is the same and physical structure has changed, so called regenerated cellulose fiber

Viscose fiber is made of natural cotton short fleece and wood. It has the following outstanding advantages.

(1) Feel soft and shiny, viscose fiber as soft as cotton fiber, silk fiber as smooth.

(2) hygroscopicity, good air permeability, the basic chemical composition of viscose fiber and cotton fiber is the same, therefore, some of its performance and cotton fiber close, the difference is that its hygroscopicity and air permeability is better than cotton fiber, it can be said that it is all the chemical fiber hygroscopicity and air permeability is the best one.

(3) Good dyeing performance, due to the strong hygroscopicity of viscose fiber, viscose fiber is easier to color than cotton fiber, pure color, gorgeous, chromatography is also the most complete.

The biggest disadvantage of viscose fiber is poor wet fastness, poor elasticity, easy to wrinkle and not easy to recover; Acid resistance, alkali resistance is not as good as cotton fiber.

2. Fuqiang fiber commonly known as tiger kapok, strong artificial cotton. It is a denatured viscose fiber.

Compared with common viscose fiber (i.e., rayon cotton, artificial wool and rayon), fuqiang fiber has the following main characteristics:

(1) Strong, that is to say, rich fiber fabric is stronger and durable than viscose fiber fabric.

(2) small shrinkage, shrinkage of rich fiber is 1 times smaller than viscose fiber.

Rich and strong (powerful) fiber

Rich and strong (powerful) fiber

Good elasticity, the clothes made of rich and strong fiber are more board whole, and the crease resistance is better than viscose fiber.

(4) alkali resistance is good, because the alkali resistance of rich and strong fiber is better than viscose fiber, so rich and strong fiber fabric in the washing of soap and other detergent is not as strict as viscose fiber.

(2) Synthetic fibers

Synthetic fibers are made of synthetic polymer compounds. The commonly used synthetic fibers include polyester, polyamide, acrylic, chloramide, vinylon, and spandex.

1. Polyester polyester's scientific name is polyethylene terephthalate, short for polyester fiber. Dacron is the name of our country's goods, abroad known as "dacron", "Telilon", "di telon" and so on.

Polyester has become the first chemical fiber due to its easy availability of raw materials, excellent performance, wide use and rapid development.

Li Su synthetic fiber

Li Su synthetic fiber

The most important feature of polyester is that it is more elastic than any other fiber; Strength and wear resistance is better, by its textile fabric fastness is not only 3 ~ 4 times higher than other fibers, and crisp, not easy to deformation, there is a "non-hot" reputation; Polyester also has strong heat resistance; With good chemical stability, under normal temperature, will not react with weak acid, weak base, oxidizer.

The disadvantage is that hygroscopicity is very poor, by its textile fabrics wear on the body stuffy, airtight. In addition, because the fiber surface is smooth, the holding force between the fibers is poor, and the place of frequent friction is easy to fuzz and knot ball.

2. Nylon nylon is the name of China's trade, its name is polyamide fiber; There are nylon -66, nylon -1010, nylon -6 and other different varieties. Nylon in foreign trade name also known as "nylon", "nylon", "kapylon", "amyron" and so on. Nylon is the earliest synthetic fiber variety in the world, because of its excellent performance and rich raw material resources, so it has been the highest yield of synthetic fiber variety. Until 1970, due to the rapid development of polyester fiber, it was relegated to the second place of synthetic fiber.

Nylon is the biggest characteristic of high strength, good wear resistance, its strength and wear resistance in all the first fiber.

The shortcomings of nylon and polyester are the same, hygroscopicity and permeability are poor. In dry environment, nylon is easy to produce static electricity, short fiber fabric is easy to pilling. The heat resistance and light resistance of nylon are not good enough, and the temperature of ironing should be controlled below 140℃. In addition, the shape of nylon is poor, the clothes made of it is not as crisp as polyester, easy to deformation. But it can be carried around and is a good material for making sweaters of all shapes.

3. Acrylic fiber acrylic fiber is the domestic trade name, its scientific name is polyacrylonitrile fiber. Abroad also known as "Orlon", "Kaotel", "dela lun" and so on.

The appearance of acrylic fiber is white, curly, fluffy and soft, resembling wool. It is often used for blending with wool or as a substitute for wool, so it is also called "synthetic wool".

Acrylic solid yarn

Acrylic solid yarn

The moisture absorption of acrylic fiber is not good enough, but the wettability is better than wool and silk fiber. Its wear resistance is poor in synthetic fibers, acrylic fiber ironing withstand temperature below 130℃.

4. The scientific name of vinylon is polyvinyl acetal fiber. Abroad also known as "vinylon", "Viner" and so on.

As white as snow and soft as cotton, vinylon is often used as a substitute for natural cotton, known as "synthetic cotton". The hygroscopicity of vinylon is the best in synthetic fiber. In addition, vinylon wear resistance, light resistance, corrosion resistance are better.

5. The scientific name of chloroprene is polyvinyl chloride fiber. Abroad have "day meilong", "Lowell" said.

Chloroprene has many advantages and strong chemical corrosion resistance; Thermal conductivity is worse than wool, therefore, thermal insulation is strong; Electrical insulation is high, difficult to ignite. In addition, it has a prominent advantage, with its woven underwear can treat rheumatoid arthritis or other injuries, without irritation or damage to the skin.

Chloroprene shortcomings are also more prominent, that is, poor heat resistance.

6. Spandex the scientific name of spandex is polyurethane elastic fiber, also known as "lakela", "Spanzier" and so on abroad. It is a kind of chemical fiber with special elastic properties, has been industrialized production, and become the fastest developing one kind of elastic fiber.

Spandex has excellent elasticity. The strength is 2 ~ 3 times higher than latex silk, the linear density is finer, and more resistant to chemical degradation. Spandex has good acid and alkali resistance, sweat resistance, seawater resistance, dry cleaning resistance and wear resistance.

Spandex fiber is generally not used alone, but mixed into the fabric in a small amount, such as combined with other fibers or made into core-spun yarn, used for weaving elastic fabrics.

Two, according to the geometry is divided into filament, short fiber, profiled fiber, composite fiber and deformed silk.

(1) filament: fiber not cut in chemical fiber processing. Filaments are divided into monofilaments and complex filaments.

Monofilament: A single thread, transparent, uniform and thin.

Polyfilament: Several monofilaments combined to form strands.

(2) Short fibers: chemical fibers can be cut off into fibers of various length specifications during post-spinning processing.

(3) Profile-shaped fiber: different cross section or hollow fiber made by changing the shape of spinneret.

①, change the fiber elasticity, hugging and covering ability, increase the surface area, enhance the reflection of light.

②, special luster. Such as five-leaf shape, triangle.

③, light weight, heat preservation, good moisture absorption. Such as hollow.

④, reduce static electricity.

⑤, improve the performance of pilling, improve fiber friction coefficient, improve hand feel.

(4) composite fiber: two or more kinds of polymers, in the way of melt or solution respectively into the same spinneret, from the same spinning hole ejected to form the fiber. Also known as two - component or multi-component fiber. Composite fiber generally has three dimensional curl, volume is highly fluffy, good elasticity, good embrace, good coverage ability. Features are:

(1) Uneven structure.

②, the composition is not uniform.

(3) Uneven expansion.

(5) Deformation silk: chemical fiber yarn or chemical fiber yarn after deformation processing.

①, high elastic polyester silk: using the thermoplastic processing of synthetic fiber, the elongation of 50~300%.

②, low elastic polyester silk: the elongation is controlled under 35%.

(3) acrylic expanded yarn; Use the thermal elasticity of acrylic fiber. Hot drawing - high shrinkage, up to 45~53%, blended with low shrinkage fibers and treated with steam.

Three, according to the use of ordinary fiber and special fiber.

(1) Common fiber: regenerated fiber and synthetic fiber.

(2) Special fiber: high temperature resistant fiber, high strength fiber, high modulus fiber, radiation resistant fiber.


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